In March 1566 Darnley and his accomplices burst in on Mary at Holyroodhouse and stabbed Riccio to death. She had married Darnley whose lineage could be traced back to Henry VII, creating an even stronger claim. But Walsingham had reckoned without the Queen's reluctance to sign the execution warrant. To execute any Queen was a precedent she did not wish to set, for her own sake. Mary was tried for treason and executed in 1587. This was Elizabeth's duty and she should get on with it. By pursuing a policy of moderation she was attempting to maintain the status quo and, although Puritans were particularly upset by the continuance of some Catholic traditions, an uneasy compromise was reached and maintained throughout her reign. As predicted, Mary quickly became the focus of plots to overthrow Elizabeth and return England to the Catholic faith. In 1568 one such problem presented itself to Elizabeth in the shape of Mary Queen of Scots. Her young son was crowned James VI on 29 July 1567. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. She was third in line to the throne. She decided to return as Queen to Scotland, agreeing to recognise the Protestant Church as long as she could privately worship as a Catholic. She became Queen of Scotland aged only six days following the death of her father, and spent her early childhood with her mother in Scotland. Please consider upgrading your browser software or enabling style sheets (CSS) if you are able to do so. The new Book of Common Prayer was introduced, adapted from earlier Books used under the Protestant Edward VI. She is Assistant Producer on Simon Schama's A History of Britain, specialising in the reign of Elizabeth I for the programme entitled The Body of the Queen. Henry, beside himself with disappointment, did not attend the christening. The main part of Hatfield House, built after the reign of Elizabeth I Her most trusted ministers, including Burghley and Walsingham, passed away. Britain's Queen Elizabeth II addressed the nation Sunday in a rare televised speech and called for unity amid the coronavirus pandemic. But her fate was sealed when she failed to provide Henry with what he desperately wanted - a son. The welfare of her people was of paramount importance to Elizabeth and she once remarked, 'I am already bound unto a husband which is the Kingdom of England.'  © Though Charles is a focal point of the series, Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip's other three children make appearances, too. Elizabeth’s first priority on becoming Queen was to return England to the Protestant faith. The scene was one part of a 105-minute color documentary … With Glenda Jackson, Ronald Hines, Robert Hardy, Stephen Murray. Elizabeth remained, however, fascinated by the Scottish Queen. This was clever talk from the Queen. The years passed until in 1566 Parliament refused to grant Elizabeth any further funds until the matter was settled. Elizabeth sent out the impetuous Earl of Essex who only managed to create further difficulties. The Virgin Queen is a 2005 BBC and Power co-production, four-part miniseries based upon the life of Queen Elizabeth I, starring Anne-Marie Duff and Tom Hardy as Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester. But neither proposal led to marriage. The Queen asserted her virginity throughout her life, but was also an attractive woman who thrived on male attention. But Elizabeth was careful not to erase all traces of Catholic worship and retained, for example, the traditions of candlesticks, crucifixes and clerical robes. Lady Jane Grey was Queen for only a matter of days before being toppled and eventually executed. More than that, Elizabeth simply did not wish to be married. Elizabeth R is a 1992 television documentary film about Queen Elizabeth II.It was produced by the BBC and directed by Edward Mirzoeff.It was the first officially approved documentary about the British monarchy since Royal Family (1969). She landed on English soil ready to meet her fellow Queen. In 1548 the French King, Henry II, proposed that the young Mary would be an ideal wife for his son, Francis, the marriage forming a perfect alliance between the two countries at a time when England was attempting to exert control over Scotland. He was soon bewitched by her, arranging to divorce Catherine of Aragon and quickly making Anne his second wife. She liked to surround herself with attractive people and her portraits were carefully vetted to make sure that no physical flaws were ever revealed. Houses were even converted into the shape of an 'E' to flatter her. She relied upon the ministers close to her but would infuriate them with her indecision - 'It maketh me weary of life,' remarked one. The Tudor queen was depicted with the snake clasped in her fingers in an original version of the work, but it was replaced with a bunch of roses. Elizabeth I's spymaster Francis Walsingham. Mary I had died unpopular with her people and tormented by her own inability to produce an heir. He had shown the Queen how much he adored her and, just as he had hoped, eclipsed everyone else. There's even a candid conversation shown between the Queen and then-U.S. President Richard Nixon. But her reluctance to marry was to become one of her biggest headaches. She had a close relationship with Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, and was not averse to using the promise of marriage for diplomatic purposes, but asserted her independence until the end of her life. Problem solved. In 1558 the Protestant preacher John Knox wrote, 'It is more than a monster in nature that a woman should reign and bear empire over man.' Francis II reigned for only a few months with Mary as his Queen and, when he died in 1560, Mary was left without a role. So was he right? Elizabeth made sure that everyone - down to the lowliest beggar - played a part, pausing to listen to congratulations from ordinary people on the street. In 1569 the Northern Uprising failed when the Catholic Earls, marching southwards, discovered that Mary had quickly been moved from Tutbury to Coventry and their plans to rescue her were thwarted. The storyteller is Queen Elizabeth II, and the subject of her tale is Queen Victoria. Elizabeth, meanwhile, was paralysed by indecision. The entertainment lasted several days with fine banquets, jousting and spectacular firework displays.  © He set out to nail Mary and, in 1586, his moment came. Elizabeth's greatest achievement lay in the relationship she had forged with her people. But when Elizabeth heard the bells pealing to celebrate the death of Mary Queen of Scots, she was horrified. But there was no announcement, no wedding bells. Her death took a heavy toll on Elizabeth, one observer noting, 'I never knew her fetch a sigh, but when the Queen of Scots was beheaded.'. The warrant had been taken to Fotheringhay before she was ready. Stream original BBC programmes FIRST on BBC iPlayer . But by now the Scots had had enough of Mary and, imprisoned at Lochleven Castle, she was forced to abdicate the Scottish throne. In November 1558, after the death of Mary I, Elizabeth succeeded to the throne. Read more. He wanted to impress the Queen... No matter that the entertainment at Kenilworth practically bankrupted him. The country now looked to the young Queen for salvation. They had known each other for years, and he was one of the first to be appointed to her Council. It took years to prepare for. The mourning which followed her death was unprecedented. Find out more about how the BBC is covering the. The names and details were duly supplied by the plotters. On the contrary she thrived on the adoration of her ministers and knew that flirtation was often the easiest way to get things done. Only when the patience of her ministers was running short would she be forced to make up her mind. The following year Philip II of Spain launched a great fleet of ships, known as the Spanish Armada, to try and overthrow Elizabeth and restore Catholicism. Princess Beatrice, granddaughter of Queen Elizabeth II, has married her fiancé Edoardo Mapelli Mozzi in a small private ceremony in Windsor.. why so many soldiers survived the trenches. Elizabeth I is considered one of the country's most successful and popular monarchs. But Mary was not giving up without a fight. As a high-profile Protestant monarch surrounded by Catholics in Europe, Elizabeth was pressured to marry and produce a Protestant heir, drawing the ire of her Catholic cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots. ...as long as Mary Queen of Scots was alive, Elizabeth's life would be in danger. Despite pressure from her advisers, particularly Lord Burghley, Elizabeth always refused to marry and provide an heir. As she had feared, Catholic Europe reacted swiftly to the news and the Pope urged Philip of Spain to invade England. In a famous speech to troops at Tilbury, she said: ‘I know I have the body of a weak, feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king - and of a King of England too.’. The Queen Elizabeth Hospital in King's Lynn, Norfolk, has made improvements but "more work is needed", a report said Improvements have been … Image: Queen Elizabeth I by George Gower (Getty Images). The crown passed to the Protestant King James VI of Scotland who became King James I of England. Elizabeth was brought up in the care of governesses and tutors at Hatfield House and spent her days studying Greek and Latin with the Cambridge scholar, Roger Ascham. Ministers longed for the glory and prestige a visit from the Queen would bestow on them, and would decorate new residences in her honour. He altered the layout of his castle, building luxurious new apartments for the Queen and her huge entourage. Elizabeth became queen at the age of 25, but her reign was far from safe. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary, born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms.. Elizabeth was born in Mayfair, London, as the first child of the Duke and Duchess of York (later King George VI and Queen Elizabeth).Her father ascended the throne on the abdication of his brother King Edward VIII in 1936, from which time she was the heir presumptive. Were women fit to rule the country? BBC © 2014 The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. With Francis Walsingham’s help, Elizabeth imprisoned Mary and kept her under constant surveillance for 19 years. Similarly Mary would ask after Elizabeth. The reign of Elizabeth I is often thought of as a Golden Age. Overnight, old coins became artifacts, such as this Queen Elizabeth II penny—now more than half a century old. As the political landscape in Europe changed, the Queen knew that she would need room to manoeuvre. There was widespread corruption amongst ministers involving the abuse of monopolies and tax evasion. She recognised how important it was to establish a clear religious framework and between 1559 and 1563 introduced the acts which made up the Church Settlement. Elizabeth R was followed by the BBC-RDF documentary Monarchy: The Royal Family at Work in 2007. In February 1587 the warrant was finally signed and the execution took place before the Queen could change her mind. A new era was dawning, the age of Elizabeth I. 'If I followed the inclination of my nature, it is this,' she said, 'beggar woman and single, far rather than queen and married.'. Mary was immediately taken to stay at Carlisle Castle by one of Elizabeth's ministers but as days turned into weeks, she became suspicious. He had the ear of the Queen and might poison her mind against them. So what influences had shaped the young Elizabeth? Their anxiety amused Elizabeth, and this gave her an excuse to exert her independence every now and then. This page has been archived and is no longer updated. Leicester, to whom she had remained close, died in 1588 and Elizabeth kept his last letter beside her bed until her own death. A mysterious image of a coiled snake has appeared in a 16th century painting of Queen Elizabeth I, the National Portrait Gallery has said. Her health deteriorated and, when death came on 24 March 1603, it was: 'mildly like a lamb, easily like a ripe apple from the tree'. Prince Charles delivers ‘heartfelt’ speech at The Royal Variety show after family reunion. Britain abolished the old Roman monetary system in 1971, and minted new coins based on the decimal system. She did not wish to meet the woman she considered her rival, but knew that if she released Mary her own life would be in danger. Day next week with a televised address in the U.K. In 1568 Elizabeth's cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots - a Catholic with a strong claim to the English throne - sought exile in England. David Dimbleby remarked on the "lonely" Queen as he presented the Remembrance Sunday service on the BBC. Fotheringhay Elizabeth helped create a Church of England that, although Protestant, allowed some of the old Catholic traditions to continue. Elizabeth's reign also saw England significantly expand its trade overseas and in 1580 Sir Francis Drake became the first Englishman to successfully circumnavigate the earth. Worse still, Elizabeth had herself been declared illegitimate in a statute which had never been formally repealed, and knew that many Catholics considered Mary to be the rightful Queen of England. And Mary Queen of Scots made a series of ill-judged decisions which led her to the executioner's block in 1587. In the political arena she encouraged the attentions of Henry, Duke of Anjou, and later his brother Francis, Duke of Alençon, which could form a useful alliance with France against Spain. Elizabeth was briefly imprisoned in the Tower of London in 1554 following a failed rebellion, of which she claimed no knowledge. Eventually, sent to stay in the unwelcoming Tutbury Castle, the truth dawned on her. But just how close was she to Leicester? Certainly, her reign had seen England prosper and become a major player in Europe. Her ministers knew and Elizabeth certainly knew. Leicester was an unknown quantity. The monarch’s pre-recorded address will be broadcast on the BBC … Faced with a dilemma - for example whether or not to sign the execution warrant of Mary Queen of Scots - Elizabeth would busy herself with other matters for months on end. 'This I account the glory of my crown, that I have reigned with your loves,' she said in her Golden Speech of 1601. The country now looked to the young Queen … More than 14 million viewers watched the Queen's message on BBC One, with about five million viewing it on ITV. Elizabeth could be as ruthless and calculating as any King before her. But her reluctance to marry was to become one of her biggest headaches and would cause her ministers, particularly the anxious Lord Burghley, sleepless nights. She was a shrewd and intelligent woman who was fluent in six languages. Agnes Brown, who is played by Brendan, was set to have a storyline involving Queen Elizabeth II but at the last minute, the plot changed. She knew the political implications of remaining unmarried but effectively banned further discussion. But she was not allowed a lawyer and, attempting to defend herself, was not even permitted to consult her own papers. Francis Walsingham, one of Elizabeth's most loyal ministers, was acutely aware of this. The welfare of the country was her priority, not marriage. This was a big mistake. The monarch said she was reminded of her first radio broadcast, in 1940, when she and her sister Princess Margaret spoke to child evacuees In … But by now Elizabeth was nearly seventy. Elizabeth the Queen by Alison Weir (Pimlico, 1999), The Virgin Queen by Christopher Hibbert (Viking, 1990), The Word of a Prince by Maria Perry (The Boydell Press, 1990), Elizabeth: Apprenticeship by David Starkey (Chatto and Windus, 2000), Gloriana: The Portraits of Queen Elizabeth I by Roy Strong (Thames and Hudson, 1987), Mary Queen of Scots by Rosalind K Marshall (HMSO, 1991), Tudor England by John Guy, (Oxford University Press, 1988), Elizabethan Essays by Patrick Collinson (Hambledon Press, 1994), Princes, Pastors and People: The Church and Religion in England, 1529 - 1689 by Susan Doran and Christopher Durston (Routledge, 1991), Defeat of the Spanish Armada by Garrett Mattingly (Cape, 1983). Elizabeth was clever to encourage this degree of devotion. The Scots regarded this with some suspicion and John Knox stirred up anti-Catholic feeling against her. It was clear that, as long as Mary Queen of Scots was alive, Elizabeth's life would be in danger. Now pregnant with Darnley's child she turned for support to her secretary, David Riccio. Elizabeth was rewarded with loyalty and, enhanced by the glow of nostalgia, her own unique place in history. However, details of the legacy she left the country are open to interpretation. As the weeks passed, Elizabeth procrastinated. Many Catholic plots centred on putting Mary on the English throne. Elizabeth was an instant hit. The Queen herself was not as sharp as she once had been. That was par for the course. It was Leicester's finest hour. Read about our approach to external linking. https://bbc.in/2J18jYJ. The Tower of London Mary was the granddaughter of Henry VIII's elder sister, Margaret, and so had a claim to the English throne. The main part of Hatfield House, built after the reign of Elizabeth I But what was Elizabeth really like? Clever, enigmatic and flirtatious, she rewrote the rules of being Queen. Elizabeth chose an able set of administrators to aid her during her rule, including William Cecil, Lord Burghley as her Secretary of State and Sir Francis Walsingham, in charge of intelligence. That is not to say that Elizabeth didn't enjoy the company of men. But years of work and expense often ended in disappointment when she failed to visit. BBC, Queen Elizabeth II More from News. She had a formidable intellect, and her sharp tongue would quickly settle any argument - in her favour. Elizabeth had often shied away from making difficult decisions and this had sown the seeds for future conflict, particularly in Ireland. Elizabeth died at Richmond Palace on 24 March 1603, and was succeeded by the Protestant James VI of Scotland, the son of her cousin Mary, Queen of Scots. Thus starts a decades-long political/ matrimonial game, during an age of high passions and high achievement. Found guilty of treason, Mary was sentenced to death. Elizabeth remains a threat in her childless Catholic sister's eyes. She also feared that Mary's relations in Europe would take revenge on England. But problems remained. Mary's trial began on 15 October 1586 at Fotheringhay. Mary was determined to re-establish Catholicism in England and viewed the Protestant Elizabeth as a direct threat. The BBC is not responsible for the content of external sites. Elizabeth was the daughter of King Henry VIII. The queen was also keen to be seen by her subjects. The dashing Earl of Leicester was something of a showman. And was her success down to her own skill and judgement - or an intuitive grasp of public relations? Elizabeth, the last Tudor monarch, was born in Greenwich on 7 September 1533. However, trouble was never far away. But life in Tudor England did not always reflect such splendour. She knew that, in political terms, she needed their support but she also felt a deep sense of responsibility for their welfare. The dashing Earl of Leicester was something of a showman. As the weeks passed, Elizabeth procrastinated. The question of how to govern Ireland had created terrible problems for the Queen over the years but 1594 saw the start of the Nine Years War in which hundreds of English troops were killed. ...the Scots had had enough of Mary and, imprisoned at Lochleven Castle, she was forced to abdicate... From this point on, events spiralled out of control. Despite all these tactics Elizabeth was capable of falling in love, and the one who came closest to winning her heart was Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester. But the two Queens never met. Â. Most read in Royal. Partly aided by bad weather, the English Navy defeated the Spanish Armada, with the help of Sir Francis Drake. In 1568 Elizabeth's cousin, Mary, Queen of Scots - a Catholic with a strong claim to the English throne - sought exile in England. To Elizabeth, Mary was a fellow Queen. Elizabeth was a different kind of Queen: quick-witted, clever and able to use feminine wiles to get her own way. But their intimacy alarmed the other ministers. Prince Philip, Princess Anne, Prince Edward, Queen Elizabeth, Prince Andrew, and Prince Charles in Windsor in 1968, the year filming began on … Elizabeth could be as ruthless and calculating as any king before her but at the same time she was vain, sentimental and easily swayed by flattery. The Ridolfi Plot of 1571 went further by enlisting Spanish support to depose Elizabeth and place Mary on the throne. Elizabeth was inconsolable and locked herself in her room. It was not, however, until she married Lord Darnley in July 1565 that things took a turn for the worse. She would marry when it was convenient and would thank Parliament to keep out of what was a personal matter. She wept for days. A year later Darnley himself was murdered, his residence in Edinburgh blown apart by an explosion. The celebrations for the Coronation, two months later, were spectacular. But Elizabeth had other ideas. By Alexandra Briscoe Kenilworth Castle In later years Catherine Parr, Henry's sixth wife, took a keen interest in the young Elizabeth and made sure that she was educated to the highest standards. Looking remarkably like Queen Anne, Britannia wears a helmet, holds a trident, and rests her hand on a As soon as her Council had been appointed, Elizabeth made religion her priority. He wanted to impress the Queen and, in the summer of 1575, threw a party at Kenilworth Castle which no one could forget.  © Whether or not the relationship was ever consummated remains open to speculation. Mary had grown close to the ruthless Earl of Bothwell and rumour soon spread that Bothwell and Mary had been responsible for the murder, particularly following their hasty marriage a few weeks later. Elizabeth's greatest achievement lay in the relationship she had forged with her people. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II delivers her annual address in … As the UK’s longest reigning monarch, Queen Elizabeth II has seen Britain change dramatically over the years. The people had lived through the unpopular reign of Mary I, known as 'Bloody Mary' for her merciless persecution of Protestants. Her presence in England could spark a Catholic uprising. Alexandra Briscoe has a background in documentary programme-making. Many Catholic plots centred on putting Mary on the English throne. She was the daughter of Henry VIII and his second wife, Anne Boleyn. Elizabeth, aged twenty-five, was now Queen of England. Ignoring the pleas of her advisors Mary managed to escape from Lochleven and, disguised as a man, fled the country. The wedding was attended by the Queen, the Princess’s grandfather Prince Philip, her father Prince Andrew, and mother Sarah, Duchess of York, Buckingham Palace confirmed to the BBC.. Mary was said to be a great beauty who exerted a strange power over men and, whenever any minister returned from a visit to the now belligerent Mary, he was quizzed by the Queen on her looks, her clothes, her attractiveness compared to herself. At last Walsingham had proof of her guilt. Mary went to live at the French court and at the age of fifteen married Francis, heir to the French throne. Mary I had died unpopular with her people and tormented by her own inability to produce an heir.  © She was a prisoner. Mary was born at Linlithgow Palace in Scotland in 1542, the daughter of James V of Scotland and the French Mary of Guise. Ministers often dealt with matters without consulting her, and she became paranoid about the threat of assassination. When Elizabeth was just two years old, her mother was beheaded for adultery on the orders of her father and she was exiled from court. The arts flourished in England during this period as Shakespeare, Spenser and Marlowe created poetry and drama while composers such as Byrd and Tallis worked in Elizabeth’s court. She learnt how to turn the tide of opinion in her favour, and this became one of her most effective weapons. For their part, the people were thrilled with their new Queen. Children would secure the line of succession. The sixteenth century was also a time when the poor became poorer, books and opinions were censored, and plots to overthrow the Queen were rife. Some see Elizabeth’s 45 year reign as a golden age of English history. According to Deadline, Queen Elizabeth recently took in a “private viewing” of The King’s Speech, the historical drama showcasing her late father, King George VI, and his struggles with a speech impediment.She apparently “enjoyed” it and screenwriter David Seidler was thoroughly “humbled” with the news. Both her brother and sister died without having children so Elizabeth became Queen. On 17 November 1558 it is said that Princess Elizabeth was sitting under an oak tree at Hatfield House when a horseman appeared with the news that would change her life forever. Number of people sentenced for offences hits five-year-low By Max Stephens 27 Dec 2020, 12:01am. Lords of the Council - numbering 150 - representatives from the Commonwealth, officials from the City of London - including the Lord Mayor - and other dignitaries witnessed the accession of the deceased king's eldest daughter this morning. She didn't expect to be Queen. Having already shown herself to be a poor judge of character, Mary now made the huge mistake of misjudging Elizabeth. When Elizabeth Tudor comes to the throne, her (male) advisers know she has to marry. It had all happened too quickly. Always a popular monarch, and a brilliant public speaker, Elizabeth united the country against this common enemy. Elizabeth remained, however, fascinated by the Scottish Queen. Here are some clips from the doc: Prince Philip and Queen Elizabeth II on a private jet. It was a time of extravagance and luxury in which a flourishing popular culture was expressed through writers such as Shakespeare, and explorers like Drake and Raleigh sought to expand England's territory overseas. In 1553, Elizabeth's older half-sister Mary became queen. Marriage was a political necessity and a way of forming a useful alliance with a European power. Princess Elizabeth has formally proclaimed herself Queen and Head of the Commonwealth and Defender of the Faith. Protestantism was now firmly established as the country's religion. She was well aware that plots were being hatched against her and that she needed the undivided loyalty of those around her as protection. Queen Elizabeth II Prince Andrew BBC Newsnight Royal Family. She went on 25 regional visits known as ‘progresses’ during her reign, often riding on horseback rather than traveling in a carriage. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets (CSS) enabled. Brendan was warned by the BBC … For someone who disliked making decisions, this was torture. The Queen is to mark the 75th anniversary of Victory in Europe (V.E.) Another 2.5 million watched the … Her mother was the ill-fated Anne Boleyn who had caught the eye of Henry VIII at court. Elizabeth I was queen of England and Ireland and her 45 year reign was considered a ‘golden period’ of English history. Elizabeth was taught the art of public speaking, unheard of for women at the time. No one told the Queen what to do and, using the skills of rhetoric she had been taught, Elizabeth addressed members of Parliament. She was nicknamed 'Gloriana' and the 'Virgin Queen' and overcame many challenges at home as well as threats from abroad. The country now looked to the young Queen for salvation. Everyone, from court astrologers to Henry himself, was convinced Anne would give birth to a boy. Yet she declared that she did not want to "make windows into men's souls" and was satisfied as long as her subjects gave an outward show of conformity. The Queen cut a "lonely figure" as she marked the centenary of the tomb of the unknown warrior. Read more. If only she could meet her, she thought, Elizabeth would rally to her cause. Despite the discovery of conspiracies and plots centred on Mary, Elizabeth showed caution and was reluctant to act against her. The people had enjoyed stable government, and Poor Laws had created a new framework of support for the needy. But the ability to address a large number of people, from ministers in Parliament to troops on the battlefield, stood Elizabeth in good stead for the future. She insisted that she was ‘married’ to her country. Elizabeth, aged twenty-five, was now Queen of England. Doesn't she? As time passed it became clear to Mary that her husband was, in fact, an arrogant bully with a drinking problem. Last updated 2011-02-17. She was ahead of her time in her grasp of public relations, and her popularity had remained undimmed. Henry, beside himself with disappointment, did not attend the christening. As Elizabeth walked along the carpet laid out for her journey to Westminster Abbey, the crowds rushed forward to cut out pieces as souvenirs. This returned England to the Protestant faith stating that public worship, religious books such as the Bible and prayers were to be conducted in English rather than Latin. Walsingham's spies discovered that she was secretly corresponding with a group of Catholic plotters and, having intercepted her letters, they forged a postscript in her hand asking for the identities of those involved. Mary's execution would be one of the factors contributing to the Spanish Armada the following year. 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