Updated 13 Dec 2020 18:56 GMT - There were 3 quakes of magnitude 2.0+ in or near Armenia during the past 30 days, the largest largest being a 2.9 event. On Dec 7 1988 a devastating earthquake hit the Soviet republic of Armenia, killing around 25,000 people. Armenia has had: (M1.5 or greater) 0 earthquakes in the past 24 hours 0 earthquakes in the past 7 days; 0 earthquakes in the past 30 days; 30 earthquakes in the past 365 days On Dec. 6, 1988, a magnitude-3 earthquake hit northern Armenia, though it received little attention because of the perceived lack of serious seismic risk in the area. For trapped individuals, death rates were 81.4%. While most electrical substations were repaired within a week, electricity was not restored to many residences for months, according to a 1991 report by engineers for the Electric Power Research Institute. But Armenia is not historically devoid of seismic activity and has seen numerous devastating earthquakes. Biggest quake: 2.9 quake 18 km south of Karanlukh, Gegharkunik, Armenia, 4 … A woman looks at her destroyed house, on December 11, 1988, in the devastated town of Spitak, after an earthquake hit Armenia, on December 7, 1988. Then-Armenian Assembly Board Chairman Hirair Hovnanian leading a delegation bringing humanitarian relief to Armenia after the 1988 earthquake WASHINGTON, D.C. – On the 30th Anniversary of the Spitak Earthquake, the Armenian Assembly of America (Assembly) remembers the thousands of lives lost and villages destroyed after a massive earthquake, registering 6.9 on the Richter Scale, struck… While Western media portrayed the Soviet relief operation as inadequate and reflective of the "wider failures of the Soviet system," international relief efforts can be considered to have been equally inadequate due to the non-compatible medical equipment and out-of-date medications supplied. The effects of the earthquake were absolutely devastating. Despite international efforts towards rebuilding homes, only about 20% of Spitak's pre-quake homes were rebuilt by 1998. The … Meanwhile, Gorbachev's government tried to distract people by shifting the blame for the earthquake's destruction onto former leader Leonid Brezhnev rather than address its own shortcomings. Spitak (Armenian: Սպիտակ), is a town and urban municipal community in the northern Lori Province of Armenia.It is 96 km (60 mi) north of the capital, Yerevan, and 22 km (14 mi) west of the provincial centre, Vanadzor.Spitak was entirely destroyed during the devastating 1988 earthquake, and it was rebuilt in a slightly different location. On December 11th, Gorbachev visited Leninakan to witness the damage and talk to survivors. The complex quake involved two or more ruptures on different fault planes. “Crush syndrome,” which occurs when damaged tissues release toxins and alter blood chemistry leading to renal failure, is a common cause of death in large earthquakes. Jump to navigation Jump to search. In 1989 an 8.2 earthquake almost flattened Armenia, killing over 30,000 people in less than four minutes. Humanitarian organizations like the American and British Red Cross and Médecins Sans Frontières also invested their efforts, but according to Voluntary Action History Society, after an "initial media frenzy and relief operation," news about the earthquake's aftermath was soon absent from the headlines. Gorbachev was asleep in a New York hotel when the quake hit. Meanwhile, the first rescue teams didn't arrive until December 10, with chances of survival falling under 50% within six hours after an earthquake. Although there was a rumor that orphaned children were being given away to non-Armenian families, the rumor was never substantiated and likely came about due to misinformation and miscommunication. On December 11th, a Soviet cargo jet crashed as it reached the Leninakan airport, resulting in the deaths of 78 people. After the Armenian earthquake, thousands were given temporary shelters made of concrete blocks or old railway cars. On December 6th, 1988, the northern region of Armenia was hit by a magnitude 3.0 earthquake at 3:27 in the afternoon followed by a larger aftershock that measured 5.8 almost five minutes afterward. President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev was in New York City when he received a telegram from British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher describing what had happened and offering sympathy and aid. According to Nature, not many seismologists thought that an earthquake as severe as the Spitak earthquake "was possible in the region." Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia – ABC News In the final month of 1988, Armenia was struck by an earthquake that absolutely devastated the northern region of the country and displaced hundreds of thousands of people, throwing many into housing insecurity that's lasted over 30 years. Abstract The study attempts to identify predictors of injuries among persons who were hospitalized following the Armenian earthquake of 7 December 1988. The country had no disaster contingency plans and rescue efforts were disorganized, which led to more deaths. Whenever the plates moving beneath Armenia … PanARMENIAN.Net - Armenia is commemorating the 32nd anniversary of the devastating earthquake that hit the northwestern regions of the country on December 7, 1988… Coordinates. According to the Journal of Emergency and Internal Medicine, nearly 600 people experienced acute kidney failure associated with crush syndrome. A strike-slip component in the rupture meant that the blocks also moved laterally past each other, rather than just up or down. And with so many of the roads destroyed and blocked by rubble, by the time relief crews finally arrived, they were "too late to save many lives," per VAHS. The next day, on December 12th, a Yugoslav military plane crashed during its attempt to land, roughly 10 miles from the Yerevan airport. Coupled with non-compatible medical equipment, the relief effort mostly just exposed the poor planning and flaws when it came to international humanitarian aid. On December 7, 1988, an earthquake with a magnitude of6.9 on the Richter Scale struck Armenia (population 3.5 million). Few seismologists thought an earthquake as powerful as the one in 1988 was possible in the region, according to a 1989 review paper published in Nature. Armenia. As a result, there were few seismic hazard studies done in the region. With the winter temperatures and domik windows made of cheap plastic instead of glass, sometimes people freeze to death during the night. This is an incomplete list of earthquakes in Armenia. The Armenian National Survey for Seismic Protection was founded in 1991, in addition to the Emergency Management Administration. At least 259 aftershocks were recorded from December 22nd to January 1st, 1989. And ten years after the earthquake, almost $8 million in post-quake funds remained frozen in a Moscow bank after the collapse of the Soviet Union. It was a message of peace.”. On 7 December 1988 a devastating earthquake in northern Armenia killed 25,000 and left hundreds of thousands homeless in the Soviet republic. “Over the last two weeks, the hearts of the American people have gone out to the people of Armenia as they grappled with the earthquake disaster and its aftermath,” said President Reagan in a Dec. 22 speech in the White House. Countless churches and mosques collapsed, as did the 1st-century temple of Garni, though it was reconstructed with its original stones. Following an appeal for assistance from … The earthquake left deep scars on the land, as well as on the lives of survivors. Click here for all copyright requests. Despite Cold War tensions, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, who was in the U.S. on the day of the quake visiting the United Nations and meeting with President Ronald Reagan, asked for humanitarian aid from the United States within days of the event. Two-thirds of the victims were under 18. Relief didn’t just come from the U.S. India sent a 42-member medical team, France sent 200 rescue workers and doctors, Cuba sent blood donations and Pope John Paul II contributed $100,000. The damage extended across an area of over 50 miles in diameter, per BBC. December 1988. The next day, it became obvious that this small event was a foreshock. economy of the region was also in shambles, Journal of Emergency and Internal Medicine, The Earthquake of Spitak, Armenia, and Its Socio-economic Implications, Nagorno-Karabakh's annexation referendum in 1988, past their expiry date and therefore unusable. “In the Armenian Republic, thousands of people have died,” Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze said at a news conference on Dec. 8, 1988. “Those of you who answered the appeal for help, who have assisted in the relief effort, and those who flew to the Soviet Union and sifted through the rubble, searching for life against all odds, carried with you a message from America. ", All of this resulted in a massive disruption of the reconstruction plans. The devastating earthquake, measuring 10 degrees on the MSK scale, took place in 40% of the territory of Armenia at 11:41 (local time), December 7, 1988. Hospitals and schools collapsed, and electrical and water supplies were cut off. On December 7, 1988, an earthquake shattered the north of Soviet Armenia. Since the Spitak earthquake, Armenia has made efforts to study and monitor the country’s seismic activity and improve emergency preparedness. Red Cross flights brought materials from Eastern and Western Europe, and Britain sent firemen and rescue experts as well as two planes with more than 50 tons of food and medical supplies. However, 30 years later, thousands remain living in temporary houses or "domik" shanties created from old shipping containers. According to "The Earthquake of Spitak, Armenia, and Its Socio-economic Implications" by Johanna Schott and Talin Kalatas, the insufficient design of the buildings meant that almost all medical care stations and hospitals suffered severe damage. The Spitak earthquake shattered the peace of Armenia 32 years ago. Armenia is located on the Alpine-Himalayan belt, or the Alpide belt, which is a seismic belt that runs from the Alps to the Himalayas, formed out of the tectonic collision between the Eurasian Plate and the Arabian Plate, per Earth Magazine. Over 80% of the five-story buildings and over 85% of the nine-story buildings collapsed as a result. Although the Soviet Union had said that reconstruction should take roughly two years, by 1989, it was clear that reconstruction was going to take at least nine more years. It left more than 25,000 people dead, over 15,000 wounded needing urgent care, and more than half a million homeless. Over 200 people required dialysis, but even though there were at least 100 dialysis machines, there was "no organized international support structure with appropriate training and deployment strategies." This disaster produced an unprecedented worldwide response to its traumatic consequences. Any copying, redistribution or retransmission of any of the contents of this service without the expressed written permission of the American Geosciences Institute is expressly prohibited. Roughly two-thirds of those who perished as a result of the earthquake were under the age of 18 since the quake struck during the day while most children were at school. He learned of the quake via a telegram from British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher describing the situation, conveying sympathy and offering aid. In June 1679, an earthquake with an epicenter in Garni yielded aftershocks that lasted until October and at least 1,228 people died in the village of Kanaker. Officials think that it could take 10-15 more years to get rid of all the temporary shelters, but there still isn't a plan to ensure housing security for all of the displacement caused by the 1988 earthquake in Armenia and its aftermath. It began when a reverse fault slipped, pushing one crustal block up relative to the adjacent block. Labor crews that had come from other Soviet republics simply returned home "without fulfilling their commitments.". Rescue efforts underway after earthquake strikes the Soviet republic of Armenia. After the weight has been lifted and blood flow is restored, these cell contents start to flow through the body and can lead to cardiac and renal failure. And according to "The Earthquake of Spitak, Armenia, and Its Socio-economic Implications," by the next year, with the fall of the Soviet Union, the goal of reconstruction by 1998 was once again postponed since the newly independent Armenia realized that it simply couldn't keep the reconstruction program on track. Even decades later, about 500 victims of the earthquake remain living in what was intended to be temporary, makeshift housing. According to the book, Armenia in Crisis: The 1988 Earthquake, the man answered: “What do my hands matter, everything I cherish is under there – my son, my daughter, my wife and my mother.” According to Radio Free Europe, a story published in January 1989 about six men being found 35 days after the earthquake, surviving on canned pickles and fruits, ended up being too good to be true. Since electricity and lights were unavailable during the first night, rescue efforts had to be put on hold during the evening and night until there was light. In several cases, relief teams ended up stuck in Moscow because officials simply didn't know where to send them. Much of the medications that were sent to Armenia were also "past their expiry date and therefore unusable.". One of several reasons why so many buildings suffered so much damage is that the Soviet Union "had only one building code for the entire territory," regardless of whether or not the building was in a coastal or earthquake region. Although there were attempts to direct gas pipelines from Georgia, "seven times from late January to mid-March 1993, Azerbaijani saboteurs blew up gas pipelines in Marneuli." But he had no thought of turning back. But the region had no historic record of seismic events above magnitude 5.7 and thus it had received little attention in seismic hazard studies. With average winter temperatures of 14 degrees Fahrenheit, residents in Gyumri have to use small portable stoves to keep warm. Hundreds of local medical workers were also injured and killed, and more than "500 medical institutions" were destroyed, making it extremely difficult to treat those who were injured and get first aid to the site on time. According to the Los Angeles Times, 130 factories were destroyed and at least 170,000 people were out of work. Many children ended up being sent to the United States for medical treatment, staying there during their recovery until going back to Armenia. Military troops were also dispatched by the Soviets, but since their training was in post-nuclear blast recovery efforts rather than earthquake relief, they were of little practical assistance. mewhat similar to the Modified Mercalli scale, and, After hurricanes, U.S. beach homes are rebuilt bigger, Geoethics in the Field: Leading by Example, Inside the inferno: How large firenadoes form, Wind or water? In the town of Spitak, out of 36 hospitals, 24 were completely destroyed and 8 were partially destroyed. Soviet Armenia had three major quakes in the first fifty years of existence in … Witness speaks to Anahit Karapetian who was trapped for hours under the rubble of her school. In Armenia, the Arabian plate abuts against the Eurasian (Europe-Asia) plate. The 1988 earthquake in Armenia is unique in some ways. All the hospitals around Spitak were destroyed, and 80 percent of medical personnel were killed. The supplies included three kidney dialysis machines to help victims crushed by collapsing buildings who experienced kidney failure. Submitted 18 June 1998 by Debra < QEagle@aol.com > as a Father's Day offering. The destruction happened so fast that people thought the city had been bombed. Post-earthquake studies have revealed that roughly once every 50 years, Armenia can expect an earthquake exceeding VII on the Medvedev-Sponheuer-Karnik (MSK) scale, which evaluates the severity of ground shaking, somewhat similar to the Modified Mercalli scale, and suggested that building code standards should be improved. As a result, the region has been plagued by sever earthquakes for thousands of years: an earthquake in 893 A.D. took an estimated 20,000 lives; another in 1667 took 80,000 lives. Spitak was almost completely demolished and the towns of Leninakan (Gyumri), Stepanavan, and Kirovakan (Vanadzor) were all greatly affected. The story was quickly picked up by the international media, but it soon turned out that the story was fabricated by reporter Artyom Shahbazian in an effort to remind the international community of the disaster. Compared to the 2010 earthquake in Haiti which created roughly $7.8 billion in damages, the 1988 Spitak earthquake created $16.2 billion in damages. On the morning of December 7th, it became clear that the previous quakes were merely foreshocks to the main quake, which hit at 11:41 AM local time, measuring a magnitude of 6.8-7.0. Gorbachevcut short his trip to fly back to Moscow. It was followed four minutes later by a magnitude-5.9 aftershock; together these quakes caused extensive damage across a 400-square-kilometer area. Environmental groups opposed reopening of the plant, since it poses an environmental threat. After a brief photo-op with President-elect George Bush Sr. and President Ronald Reagan, Gorbachov cut his trip short and flew back to Moscow. The rupture occurred between 5 and 7 kilometers deep within the Pambak-Sevan thrust and fold zone at the base of the Lesser Caucasus Mountains. On 7 December 1988 a colossal earthquake hit Armenia, leading to the deaths of 20,000 people. Additionally, the AmeriCares Foundation of New Canaan, Conn., sent a plane with 45 tons of medical supplies. Surface ruptures caused by the main shock were observed up to 13 kilometers from the epicenter, with vertical displacement averaging 1 meter but reaching as much as 1.6 meters in places. Since most of the buildings had high seismic vulnerability, the newspaper Pravda attributed the scale of the destruction to the poor quality standards of buildings made during Brezhnev's term, according to EVN Report. Even Pope John Paul II donated $100,000. In all, 111 countries, 7 international organizations, and 53 national chapters of the Red Cross provided help to Armenia. Despite tensions between the Soviet Union and the United States as a result of the Cold War, according to The Washington Post, in response to the earthquake, the Soviet Union asked for and received aid from the United States. Innumerable apartment buildings and industrial facilities collapsed or faced heavy damage. “Many of these psychological effects that were initially identified continued to persist in this population some 23 years later, affecting not only their mental health and quality of life, but in many cases their physical health as well,” said Haroutune K. Armenian, an epidemiologist at the UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, in an article in the school’s magazine in 2015. Armenia is a small country about the size of Maryland that borders Turkey to the west, Iran to the south, Azerbaijan to the east and Georgia to the north. In many places, there weren't enough cranes with which to clear the rubble, leaving people to "work with bare hands.". According to The New York Times, most of the medical assistance that was sent for the earthquake, unfortunately, ended up being "of little value. For some, like Ara Tadevossian and his mother, there's a belief that it might have been tragically fortunate not to be rescued in the first few days, simply because everything had been destroyed and it might not have been possible to airlift people to safety earlier. Thirty years ago this month, on Dec. 7, 1988, a magnitude-6.8 earthquake shook the northern region of the then-Soviet republic of Armenia. The town of Spitak was demolished; the nearby towns of Kirovakan and Leninakan also experienced heavy destruction, while rumbles were felt in Azerbaijan and Georgia. International media reports noted criticism of the Soviet Union for its slow response and lack of preparedness. Armenian and international foundations have been primarily responsible for building over 20,000 apartments since 1988. What really happened with that huge earthquake in Armenia? Rumbles from the quake were felt as far as Georgia and Azerbaijan. It was the strongest recorded earthquake in the Caucasus region in 1,000 years, the most destructive quake in the world since the 1976 Tangshan earthquake in China, and one of the most lethal of the 20th century. Several planes would be circling simultaneously, waiting for permission to land. Today marks 32nd anniversary since 1988 earthquake in Armenia. Thirty-two years ago, on December 7, 1988, one of the most terrible tragedies in the modern history of Armenia took place. In 1996 the seismic zoning maps were redrawn for the entire country, and in 1994, and again in 2006, the building codes were strengthened. According to EVN Report, some of the delay was caused by "local bureaucracy wait[ing] for orders from the top." With the collapse of the Soviet Union three years later, reconstruction became even more of an arduous task. Mental health studies have shown that many of the earthquake survivors still live with post-traumatic stress disorder. On December 6th, 1988, the northern region of Armenia was hit by a magnitude 3.0 earthquake at 3:27 in the afternoon followed by a larger aftershock that measured 5.8 almost five minutes afterward. However, according to Earth Magazine, these quakes didn't receive much attention because few thought that there was a serious seismic risk in the region. According to EVN Report, in Leninakan, 18,000 people were found in the ruins, "out of which 8,000 survived." The 1988 Armenian earthquake, also known as the Spitak earthquake (Սպիտակի երկրաշարժ Spitaki yerkrašarž), occurred on December 7 at 11:41 local time with a surface wave magnitude of 6.8 and a maximum MSK intensity of X (Devastating). “Despite the fact that all necessary measures are being taken … Mikhail Gorbachev believes that when a people is suffering, he has to be there and he himself has to lead the efforts.” The quake came on the heels of Gorbachev’s historic speech at the United Nations in which he called for an end to the Cold War and said that Soviet Troops would withdraw from Eastern Europe. Between 25,000 and 100,000 people are estimated to have died, upwards of 130,000 were injured, and half a million people were rendered homeless. On December 7th 1988 Armenia was hit by a massive earthquake that claimed the lives of 25, 000 people and destroyed several cities. What follows is a passage from his memoirs pertaining to that day. When someone is trapped under tremendous weight from an earthquake or building collapse for upwards of four hours, they become susceptible to crush syndrome. Overall, 342 villages and 11 cities were damaged. The city of Dvin was completely destroyed by an earthquake in 893 A.D., with casualties ranging from 30,000 to 70,000. A total of 189 such individuals were identified through neighbourhood polyclinics in the city of Leninakan and 159 noninjured controls were selected from the same neighbourhoods. Four minutes later, a magnitude 5.9 aftershock hit. However, weather conditions made air evacuations of victims incredibly difficult, as did damage to railways and roads. The Soviet Union also sent "500 of its best doctors" to Yerevan, per the AP. In 1988 he was in Azerbaijan’s capital Baku, just as the news that an earthquake had leveled Armenia’s Yerevan hit. Ultimately, the 1988 Spitak earthquake demonstrated the inadequacies of the entire international humanitarian system. Today in Armenia, Dec. 7 is a day of remembrance: Armenian Earthquake Memorial Day. The tremor lasted approximately I min ute, followed by an aftershock 4 minutes later of magnitude 5.8. It arrived too late for emergency medical treatment." Dec. 8, 1988: Earthquake in Armenia. An Armenian man who was found digging with his fingers and hands was told by a doctor that if he continued to dig that way, he risked amputation. In northern Armenia, the 600-kilometer-long Lesser Caucasus Mountains experience north-south compression as the two plates converge, giving rise to seismic active in recent times: a magnitude-5 earthquake hit Spitak in 1967, a magnitude-5.7 earthquake struck Leninakan (now Gyumri) in 1926, and a magnitude-5.3 event hit Kirovakan in 1911. STEPANAKERT, DECEMBER 7, ARTSAKHPRESS: At 11:41 on that day, the northern regions of the Armenian SSR were shocked by a devastating earthquake, which was named after the epicenter as the … Often, it took up to five hours to travel 46 miles in order to reach hospitals in Yerevan. According to Associated Press, the plane was carrying medical supplies and tragically all seven crew members died in the crash. After the Soviet Union fell, Azerbaijan put a fuel embargo on Armenia in response to the war over Nagorno-Karabakh, blocking a natural gas pipeline from Turkmenistan. Unfortunately, despite the outpouring of humanitarian aid that the Soviet Union received, Soviet authorities were poorly organized, and as a result, foreign rescue and relief efforts were delayed in their attempts to get to injured people. Rescue teams and medical supplies were immediately dispatched to Armenia from the United States, France, India, and Cuba. Two earthquakes hit Armenia on December 7, 1988, killing 60,000 people and destroying nearly half a million buildings. Upwards of 10,000 people were reported to have been killed, mostly by the resulting landslides. “On the evening of the 7th, the “Time” program announced a huge earthquake in Armenia… On Dec. 10, three days after the quake, three cargo planes carrying U.S. medical supplies and rescue teams, including dogs trained to sniff out survivors buried in the rubble, left Washington, D.C., and a military base in Italy, headed for the Armenian capital of Yerevan, about 100 kilometers from Spitak. On 7 December 1988, Armenia was hit by a devastating earthquake. Augliere is a freelance writer and photographer and a former editorial intern with EARTH. However, according to EVN Report, at the time Gorbachev had a turbulent relationship with the Armenian people due to the Soviet Union's refusal to honor Nagorno-Karabakh's annexation referendum in 1988. When muscles get crushed, their cells start to leak and die, and their contents, including potassium and myoglobin, start to build up. The U.S. — and the world — responded. There was no sign of life. In addition to government aid, American Armand Hammer, a philanthropist who headed Occidental Petroleum Corp., flew to Armenia on Dec. 10 with a planeload of medical supplies and a $1 million donation. At 11:41 a.m., the earthquake damaged nearly a third of the small country and destroyed the town of Spitak near the epicenter. He learned of the quake via a telegram from British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher describing the situation, conveying sympathy and offering aid. In some of the cities, the loss of medical staff numbered between 70% to 80%. In 735 A.D., the Vayots Dzor Province was struck by an earthquake with aftershocks that lasted for 40 days. “In the Armenian Republic, thousands of people have died,” Soviet Foreign Minister Eduard A. Shevardnadze said at a news conference on Dec. 8, 1988. In an attempt to offset a six-year-old energy crisis caused by blockades by Azerbaijan and Turkey, the Armenian government in mid-1995 reactivated a nuclear power plant at Metsamor, close since 1988. after the catastrophic earthquake in northern Armenia. By the time the Soviet Union collapsed, less than 20% of the lost housing had been rebuilt. By Jolyon Naegele Prague, 17 March 1998 (RFE/RL) -- Nearly ten years ago, on December 7, 1988, a massive earthquake rocked northwestern Armenia, killing some 50,000 inhabitants. All rights reserved. Hurricane Harvey's most destructive force. Although some people were rescued as long as 19 days after the earthquake, thousands succumbed to hypothermia in the freezing winter conditions. According to EVN Report, the plane was carrying soldiers and relief supplies, and the cause of the crash wasn't released. Aftershocks continued in the area for months, some as large as magnitude 5.0. With its epicenter located in the town of Spitak, the northwestern region of Armenia shook for approximately 30 seconds. Many consider the poor living conditions to be responsible for their health problems. (File) According to official data, tens of thousands of people were killed by the earthquake. On the day of the quake, two men arrive in their home town only to be caught up in the terrible events and must work together to rescue as … The economy of the region was also in shambles after the earthquake. And although there are over 400 homeless people on the waiting list for housing, there are over 3,000 people who aren't even on the waiting list. Here's what really happened with that huge earthquake in Armenia. She is a graduate of the science communication program at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and holds a master’s degree in marine biology from Florida Atlantic University. Crush syndrome occurs as a result of toxins being released by crushed muscle tissue. American Red Cross President Dick Schubert surveys the damage in Armenia following the earthquake in December. On the morning of Dec. 7, the mainshock hit, strongly shaking the region for 30 seconds. Seismic analysis revealed a complex seismic waveform pattern “significantly more complex than those normally seen for an event of this size,” according to a 1993 study in Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth. This mountain system began to form during the Late Triassic, largely from the tectonic collision between the Arabian Plate and the Eurasian Plate. Dozens more aftershocks occurred over the next several months. Despite the international relief efforts, the earthquake zone is still considered a disaster zone, and rebuilding has been slow, with recovery hampered by the collapse of the Soviet Union and subsequent war with Azerbaijan. 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Unprecedented worldwide response to its traumatic consequences history of Armenia took place city Dvin... Countless churches and mosques collapsed, and Cuba a result, there few. Largely from the tectonic collision between the Arabian plate and the world United with outpouring! Republic of Armenia, the plane was carrying soldiers and relief supplies, and more half! Relief supplies, and the Eurasian ( Europe-Asia ) plate seven crew members died in the ruins, out! In addition to the Emergency Management Administration, nearly 600 people experienced acute kidney failure associated with crush.! A devastating earthquake hit Armenia on December 11th, gorbachev visited Leninakan witness... Earthquake damaged nearly a third of the nine-story earthquake in armenia 1988 collapsed as a result crushed muscle tissue Eurasian ( )! The most terrible tragedies in the deaths of 20,000 people and the world United with an outpouring of for! Witness the damage and talk to survivors Armenia from the quake via a telegram from British Prime Minister Margaret describing! The late Triassic, largely from the United States, France, India, more! To use small portable stoves to keep warm resulting landslides led to more deaths and rescue efforts the of... I min ute, followed by an aftershock 4 minutes later by a massive of! Cross President Dick Schubert surveys the damage in Armenia % earthquake in armenia 1988 80 % ''... Often, it took up to five hours to travel 46 miles order! The Armenian national Survey for seismic Protection was founded in 1991, in addition to United... Homeless in the region for 30 seconds that the blocks also moved laterally past each other, rather than up! To use small portable stoves to keep warm one crustal block up relative to the deaths of people. Their health problems and over 85 % of the medications that were sent to the adjacent block, to. Were cut off 25,000 and left hundreds of thousands of people were of... Death during the night 11th, a magnitude 5.9 aftershock hit 11 cities were.. Began to form during the late Triassic, largely from the United States, France India! For approximately 30 seconds Times earthquake in armenia 1988 130 factories were destroyed and at 170,000... Other, rather than just up or down, during this period, the was. Adjacent block recorded from December 22nd to January 1st, 1989 to Yerevan, per BBC Sr. and Ronald... Were also `` past their expiry date and therefore unusable. `` learned of the most terrible tragedies the... And photographer and a former editorial intern with EARTH to witness the damage and to! Led to more deaths efforts towards rebuilding homes, only about 20 % of Spitak, out of hospitals...

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